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daily 07/11/2016

    • Almost instinctually, if a group of people turns its collective gaze in one direction, you’ll follow suit. Why? Psychologists call it “ensemble coding.”
    • Ford isn’t alone in its aversion to the type of automation that Tesla is now building into its vehicles. Google has eschewed it, too. And a Volvo executive recently derided autopilot as an unsafe “wannabe” posing as a more advanced system.




    • privately, many in the industry viewed something like that accident as inevitable with Tesla’s technology
    • No-Automation (Level 0)
    • Function-specific Automation (Level 1):
    • Examples include electronic stability control or pre-charged brakes,
    • Combined Function Automation (Level 2)
    • An example of combined functions enabling a Level 2 system is adaptive cruise control in combination with lane centering.
    • Limited Self-Driving Automation (Level 3): Vehicles at this level of automation enable the driver to cede full control of all safety-critical functions under certain traffic or environmental conditions and in those conditions to rely heavily on the vehicle to monitor for changes in those conditions requiring transition back to driver control.
    • The Google car is an example of limited self-driving automation.
    • Full Self-Driving Automation (Level 4
    • Such a design anticipates that the driver will provide destination or navigation input, but is not expected to be available for control at any time during the trip. This includes both occupied and unoccupied vehicles.
    • As NHTSA notes, Google’s original self-driving cars—in which a human driver sat at the wheel and took over when things got dicey—were an example of Level 3 automation.




    • But at some point in its testing, Google decided that Level 3 automation was not a good idea.
    • Google fundamentally rethought its approach to vehicle automation and decided to devote all its resources to Level 4 technology.
    • Taking the human out of the loop, Google came to believe, was the only way to make self-driving cars truly safe.
    • So which level is Tesla’s autopilot? I
    • It combines adaptive cruise control, automatic steering, automatic lane changes, and automatic emergency steering, which combine to do just about everything the driver would normally do under routine highway conditions
    • In other words, Ford didn’t see a use case for Level 3 automation that would justify the cost—unless it were to allow drivers to sit back and relax, which would pose safety concerns, since Level 3 systems aren’t designed to be fully reliable in an emergency.
    • Likewise, Trent Victor, Volvo’s senior technical leader for crash avoidance, told the Verge in April that Tesla’s autopilot “gives you the impression that it’s doing more than it is,” implicitly encouraging drivers to zone out.
    • Toyota says it will design systems that do essentially the opposite. That is, they’ll leave the bulk of the driving to the driver but step in with evasive action in case of emergency.
    • if they weren’t already having second thoughts based on all those YouTube videos of Model S drivers going “hands-free” (or even, in one case, taking a nap). The May 7 crash victim was among those who posted such videos, and there are indications he may have been watching a Harry Potter movie when he died.




Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

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